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- Soil Contamination, Risk Assessment and Remediation
- Functional Plant Ecology - Francisco Pugnaire, Fernando Valladares- (2007)
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Environmental Soil Science | NHBS Academic & Professional Books
Hill country erosion: a review of knowledge on erosion processes, mitigation options, social learning and their long-term effectiveness in the management of hill country erosion. A soil water balance model for sloping land. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 29 2 , — Soils and Farming Patterns in the Wairarapa. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 31, 9— Cameron , D De Floriani , L and Magillo , P Intervisibility on terrains.
Causes and consequences of error in digital elevation models. Progress in Physical Geography 30 4 , — Hillel , D Environmental Soil Physics. Jenness , J Spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns — A meta-analysis using plot to catchment scale data. Journal of Hydrology , — Land Information New Zealand, L. Landvision Ltd. Other possible tools may include a toxicity identification evaluation TIE approach [ 88 ].
The TIE approach is a relatively new method, which aims to identify groups of toxicants in soils with mixed pollution. Potentially toxic components present in the soil are fractionated and determined, and the toxicity of each individual fraction is determined by a Lux bacteria-based bioassay or the Microtox bioassay.
Although perhaps promising, TIE is a time-consuming and hence costly procedure not yet used routinely. Another crucial issue when analyzing the result of bioassays, TME, and field studies is the presence or absence of a proper reference site or soil. The control soil should in principle resemble the contaminated soil in all relevant parameters, e.
The lack of adequate control or reference sites may, however, be conquered at least partially by the use of multivariate techniques [ 89 ], which relate the species composition and abundance to gradients of pollutants. It is not the intention of this chapter to present a review of statistical tools for ecological risk assessment, and hence a detailed discussion about the use of these is not given.
However, it is obvious that increased computer power and the presence of new easy-to-use software tools have increased the possibility to move away from more conventional univariate statistics such as analysis of variance ANOVA to more powerful multivariate statistics that use all collected data to evaluate effects at a higher level of organization. Statistical methods such as the power analysis may also be very useful in planning and designing large-scale ecotoxicity studies such as mesocosms,TME, or field surveys.
As all sites are considered unique this should always be done in a site-specific manner. Essential for all steps are a negotiation and agreement of the need for further action between the risk assessor, the risk manager and other stakeholders, the so-called scientific-management decision points SMDP. SMDP made at the end of the screening-level assessment will not set an initial cleanup goal. Instead, hazard quotients, derived in this step, are used to help determine potential risk. Thus, requiring a cleanup based solely on those values would not be very likely, although it is technically feasible.
There are three possible decisions at the SMDP:. There is enough information to conclude that ecological risks are very low or non-existent, and therefore there is no need to clean up the site on the basis of ecological risk.
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The information is not adequate to make a decision at this point, and the ecological risk assessment process will proceed. The information indicates a potential for adverse ecological effects, and a more thorough study is necessary. In the Netherlands contaminated sites are first determined using a set of soil screening levels called target and intervention values, which take both human and ecological risks into account. At seriously contaminated sites remediation or other soil management decisions are required if the risks cannot be neglected based on a site-specific ecological and human risk assessment, and the chance for dispersion of the contaminants.
Until now, the ecological risk assessment has been based on chemical analysis, including a Decision Table harbouring critical dimensions of the impacted area. The United Kingdom and Canada have also developed framework for ecological risk assessment of contamination land. A cornerstone in the UK framework of ERA is the connection to the statutory regime for identification and control of land potentially affected by contamination.
The UK framework is based on schemes found in e. USA, Canada and the Netherlands.
Like these it is a based on a tiered approach where the initial Tier 0 aims to determine whether a site falls under the Part IIA of the legislation. It involves the development of a Conceptual Site Model CSM , which described what is already historically known about the site, e. The conceptual site model is followed by an initial screening phase Tier 1 and an actual site-specific characterisation Tier 2. Tier 1 is a simple deterministic comparison of chemical residue data and the soil quality guideline values supplemented with simple soil-specific toxicity testing.
The final step Tier 3 involves more detailed in-situ studies and for example ecological modelling based on a more advanced ecological theory. Tier 3 is not likely to be conducted at many sites.
Soil Contamination, Risk Assessment and Remediation
Ecological Risk Assessment is often a complex process with many variables to take into account. ERA involves many stakeholders and all have to be dealt with in a clear and consistent way. A stepwise or tiered approach is therefore useful to overcome the complexity of an ERA. Each tier will lead to a decision to proceed or to stop. A number of decisions supporting systems or frameworks have already been developed in other countries, e. However, in the present DSS measures of bioavailability and the use of the Triad approach may be built into the system more systematically.
This chapter introduces the overall framework of a novel DSS including the Triad approach and the challenge to weight and scale results used in that process.
Rutgers et al. Each of these four tiers is based on a weight of evidence WoE approach combining three lines of evidence Chemistry, eco Toxicology and Ecology. The DSS in this chapter is not a full and comprehensive document for managing risk of contaminated land. It focuses strongly on supporting decisions made when considering risk to the terrestrial environment. Therefore it addresses only indirectly the risk to ground water and associated connected fresh water systems. Nevertheless information about e. Furthermore, it is important to realise that the management of a contaminated site is more than assessing ecological risk.
Issues like for example risk for humans, availability and cost of remediation solutions, development plans for the vicinity or the region are equally important. It aims at involving as many stakeholders as possible in order to describe site characteristics and to review all available information from the site, e.
The spatial borders of the site should be defined and the current and the future landuse have to be defined. Consultation between administrators, planners and experts therefore has to take place as early as possible in the process. An inquiry among all stakeholders should be conducted as one of the first initiatives. The aim should be to collect as much information about soil characteristics as possible. One of the first actions to be taken among all stakeholders is to decide which landuse is required for the site, as this will determine the required data collection and testing.
Functional Plant Ecology - Francisco Pugnaire, Fernando Valladares- (2007)
Many land-uses may be defined, but generally the four following overall categories of land-use classes are used:. Most often a site specific ERA will be initiated only when soil concentrations exceed soil screening levels. However, this may not in itself be a sufficient criterion to go through the entire ERA procedure.
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Some boundary conditions, based on the present and future type of land-use, the level of contamination and various ecological considerations have to be met in order to rationalize an ERA. The experts and the rest of the stakeholders should answer a number of simple questions in order to conclude whether the required boundary conditions are fulfilled. At stage II, site-specific ecological features and receptors relating to the land-use defined in Stage I need to be outlined. This includes aspects like key species and life support functions. The potential ecological receptors should be identified in order to determine whether potential source-pathway-receptor linkages can be established.
This includes not only ecological receptors directly linked to the site but also those linked indirectly e. In Table 9 some examples are given of land-use and related ecological aspects.
This table can be used as a starting point for the selection of ecological aspect. Experts from ecotoxicology and ecology should be involved in the selection of ecological aspects.